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How exactly log-transformed data really represent the characteristics of original data?

Dear scientists, I am doing PCA and Cluster analysis of water samples using XLSTAT 2018. To use PCA and cluster analysis, many researchers suggest that it is needed to normalization original data. In my case, I used the standardized method to transform the physio-chemical parameter such as pH, T0C, EC, Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3... I would like to know that How exactly log-transformed data really represent the characteristics of original data?

Thank you very much, 

  • tran an
  • Feb 21 2019
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